Comprising 30 original theoretical, historical, and historiographic essays, this volume covers the vibrancy of medieval art from both thematic and sub-disci Phrase Searching You can use double quotes to search for a series of words in a particular order. Wildcard Searching If you want to search for multiple variations of a word, you can substitute a special symbol called a "wildcard" for one or more letters.
A Companion to Medieval Art: Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe (Blackwell Companions ...
You can use? Advanced Searching Our Advanced Search tool lets you easily search multiple fields at the same time and combine terms in complex ways. See the help page for more details. Want to get more out of the basic search box? Read about Search Operators for some powerful new tools. Series: Blackwell companions to art history ; 2. This transition occurs first in England and France around , in Germany around and Italy around Painting during the Gothic period was practiced in four primary media: frescos , panel paintings , manuscript illumination and stained glass.
Frescoes continued to be used as the main pictorial narrative craft on church walls in southern Europe as a continuation of early Christian and Romanesque traditions. An accident of survival has given Denmark and Sweden the largest groups of surviving church wall paintings in the Biblia pauperum style, usually extending up to recently constructed cross vaults.
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In both Denmark and Sweden, they were almost all covered with limewash after the Reformation which has preserved them, but some have also remained untouched since their creation. In northern Europe, stained glass was an important and prestigious form of painting until the 15th century, when it became supplanted by panel painting. Gothic architecture greatly increased the amount of glass in large buildings, partly to allow for wide expanses of glass, as in rose windows. In the early part of the period mainly black paint and clear or brightly coloured glass was used, but in the early 14th century the use of compounds of silver, painted on glass which was then fired, allowed a number of variations of colour, centred on yellows, to be used with clear glass in a single piece.
By the end of the period designs increasingly used large pieces of glass which were painted, with yellows as the dominant colours, and relatively few smaller pieces of glass in other colours. Illuminated manuscripts represent the most complete record of Gothic painting, providing a record of styles in places where no monumental works have otherwise survived. The earliest full manuscripts with French Gothic illustrations date to the middle of the 13th century.
During the late 13th century, scribes began to create prayer books for the laity, often known as books of hours due to their use at prescribed times of the day.
From the middle of the 14th century, blockbooks with both text and images cut as woodcut seem to have been affordable by parish priests in the Low Countries , where they were most popular. By the end of the century, printed books with illustrations, still mostly on religious subjects, were rapidly becoming accessible to the prosperous middle class, as were engravings of fairly high-quality by printmakers like Israhel van Meckenem and Master E.
In the 15th century, the introduction of cheap prints , mostly in woodcut , made it possible even for peasants to have devotional images at home. These images, tiny at the bottom of the market, often crudely coloured, were sold in thousands but are now extremely rare, most having been pasted to walls. Painting with oil on canvas did not become popular until the 15th and 16th centuries and was a hallmark of Renaissance art.
Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe
In Northern Europe the important and innovative school of Early Netherlandish painting is in an essentially Gothic style, but can also be regarded as part of the Northern Renaissance , as there was a long delay before the Italian revival of interest in classicism had a great impact in the north. Painters like Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck , made use of the technique of oil painting to create minutely detailed works, correct in perspective, where apparent realism was combined with richly complex symbolism arising precisely from the realistic detail they could now include, even in small works.
In Early Netherlandish painting, from the richest cities of Northern Europe, a new minute realism in oil painting was combined with subtle and complex theological allusions, expressed precisely through the highly detailed settings of religious scenes. These were usually displayed in the home.
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The Gothic period is essentially defined by Gothic architecture , and does not entirely fit with the development of style in sculpture in either its start or finish. The facades of large churches, especially around doors, continued to have large tympanums, but also rows of sculpted figures spreading around them. These trends were continued in the west portal at Reims Cathedral of a few years later, where the figures are almost in the round, as became usual as Gothic spread across Europe.
In Italy Nicola Pisano —78 and his son Giovanni developed a style that is often called Proto-Renaissance , with unmistakable influence from Roman sarcophagi and sophisticated and crowded compositions, including a sympathetic handling of nudity, in relief panels on their pulpit of Siena Cathedral —68 , the Fontana Maggiore in Perugia , and Giovanni's pulpit in Pistoia of Another revival of classical style is seen in the International Gothic work of Claus Sluter and his followers in Burgundy and Flanders around Tilman Riemenschneider , Veit Stoss and others continued the style well into the 16th century, gradually absorbing Italian Renaissance influences.
Life-size tomb effigies in stone or alabaster became popular for the wealthy, and grand multi-level tombs evolved, with the Scaliger Tombs of Verona so large they had to be moved outside the church. By the 15th century there was an industry exporting Nottingham alabaster altar reliefs in groups of panels over much of Europe for economical parishes who could not afford stone retables. South portal of Chartres Cathedral c. West portal at Reims Cathedral , Annunciation group. Claus Sluter , David and a prophet from the Well of Moses. Panelled altarpiece section with Resurrection of Christ , English Nottingham alabaster , —90, with remains of colour.
Small carvings, for a mainly lay and often female market, became a considerable industry in Paris and some other centres.
Types of ivories included small devotional polyptychs , single figures, especially of the Virgin , mirror-cases, combs, and elaborate caskets with scenes from Romances , used as engagement presents. Gothic sculptures independent of architectural ornament were primarily created as devotional objects for the home or intended as donations for local churches,  although small reliefs in ivory , bone and wood cover both religious and secular subjects, and were for church and domestic use.
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Such sculptures were the work of urban artisans, and the most typical subject for three dimensional small statues is the Virgin Mary alone or with child. An exemplar of these independent sculptures is among the collections of the Abbey Church of St Denis; the silver-gilt Virgin and Child dates to and features Mary enveloped in a flowing cloak holding an infantile Christ figure.
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Souvenirs of pilgrimages to shrines, such as clay or lead badges , medals and ampullae stamped with images were also popular and cheap. Their secular equivalent, the livery badge , were signs of feudal and political loyalty or alliance that came to be regarded as a social menace in England under bastard feudalism. The cheaper forms were sometimes given away free, as with the 13, badges ordered in by King Richard III of England in fustian cloth with his emblem of a white boar for the investiture of his son Edward as Prince of Wales,  a huge number given the population at the time.
The Dunstable Swan Jewel , modelled fully in the round in enamelled gold, is a far more exclusive version, that would have been given to someone very close or important to the donor.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica.