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Toward a Unified Damage Mechanics approach for composite laminates sizing. Today composite sizing and particularly failure criteria used in industrial environment are mostly based on phenomenological modeling. The implementation of this approach requires to calibrate failure criteria by testing numerous coupons for various local structural details filled hole compression, open hole tension, stiffener run out, compression after impact This process is unfortunately time consuming and costly. The presentation will focus on an innovative approach based on damage mechanics meso-scale modeling developed by LMT Cachan.

Failure prediction models of Laminated Composites for a more efficient design: The link is missing. Thierry Vilain and Dominique Martini. Dassault-Aviation, France. When the composite materials technology started to develop, it was expected that the simple characterization of fiber, matrix and interface would be sufficient to predict the complete behavior and failure of a composite structure. After 40 years, the efforts placed in model developments and the increasing processing power of computers have led to significant achievements in the understanding and simulation of the damage and failure of composite structures.

However, this growing expertise in composites is not well transferred into design or sizing tools for a better assessment of the influence of laminate parameters. These evaluations must be performed through costly tests campaign. First, Dassault will recall the main aeronautical constraints for the design and sizing of composite structures, the typical design tools and procedures, and their limitations. Dassault will end by pointing out its strategy to overcome the limitations of notched laminates failure tool by trying to develop a modelisation with the relevant level of complexity while keeping in mind the final objective of supporting design and sizing methodologies.

Alain Tropis. The use of composite has been progressive in the last 40 years with a significant acceleration in the last 10 years with the introduction of Full Composite Wing and Composite Fuselage to comply with this need of performance density, fatigue behavior, corrosion, …. However it can be noticed that the level of performance reached is not sufficient to make a real breakthrough for future composite applications and in particular for fuselage.

Large Scale models for A In order to secure the A structural test campaign, the Virtual Full Scale Test project ViFST was launched to predict more accurately the behaviour of the aircraft, especially to better handle nonlinear effects large displacements, plasticity, contact The project covers most of the aircraft structure and brings together teams from 5 countries Germany, England, Spain, India and France. The presentation will focus on the central model, which is composed of the central fuselage and the two wings. This is the largest model of the project 68 millions dof.

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The presentation will detail the particular challenges overcome by Airbus:. Laurent Risse. Composite structures are widely used on A for major structural components. Some specific prediction methodologies were developed or adapted from previous experience to capture the main optimum structure behaviour. The objective of this presentation is to illustrate the key lessons learned for the prediction of the behaviour and failure of composite structures.

Some main sizing criteria will be reviewed, like:. The field of laminated composite materials is both old and new. It is old in the sense that it was in the early s that scientists and engineers started to study and apply the vast potential of fibrous composite materials seriously.

Analysis and modelling of damage and repair of composite materials in aerospace

It is new in the sense that the pace of the development of new materials and processes and of the emergence of new applications keeps accelerating, especially in the aeronautical and space industries, as the consequence of considerable research and technological progress. The talk will deal with the following question, which is central and crucial for the design of composite structures: how can one predict the evolution of damage up to—and including—final fracture?

The proposed damage mesomodel could be seen as the homogeneized model of a micromechanics one; it includes a model of the interaction between delamination and ply microcraking which depends on some micromechanical material constants. Last enhancements will be also described. Unfortunately, even with the most advanced numerical methods, the use of these models in structural calculations leads to completely prohibitive computational costs.

This is a stumbling block for structural design, which makes extensive use of real-time simulations. The Virtual Chart concept that we introduced should provide a means to overcome this block. Simulating progressive in-ply and delamination failure in composite laminates using a combined elastoplastic damage model. Morozov and J. A combined elastoplastic damage model which accounts for both plasticity and damage effects is used to represent the mechanical response of composite laminates.

Plastic behaviour of composite plies and material property degradation caused by the damage initiation and development are taken into account. The model is integrated into a finite element simulation procedure which accounts for in-ply and delamination damage effects. The strain-driven implicit integration procedure is developed using equations of continuum damage mechanics, plasticity theory and includes the return mapping algorithm.


A cohesive zone model based on cohesive elements available in Abaqus is employed to simulate delamination behaviour in the adhesive interfaces. Composite and adhesive layers are simulated using continuum shell elements and cohesive elements stacked together in one finite-element model. Christian Hochard. The failure of laminated composite structures is due to many mechanisms acting on various scales.

It is possible to observe an early stage of transverse diffuse damage which does not lead to the rupture of the laminate contrary to the rupture in the fibre direction. A model based on the reduction of strength in the fibre direction for high levels of transverse damage was proposed. The influence of various mechanical loads static-damage, fatigue-damage on the evolution of the transverse diffuse damage were analysed and a non-linear cumulative damage model has been developed. The influence of loading rates visco-damage and constant load creep-damage is still under investigation.

In addition, an original approach based on a Fracture Characteristic Volume FCV has been developed to predict the fibre failure of laminated structures with stress concentrations. The FCV is a cylinder defined at the ply scale on which an average stress is calculated. Failure analysis of composite laminates on different scales with the extended finite element method F.

abaqus buckling analysis of composite cylinder

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands In this contribution, computational models for different aspects of laminate failure are presented. The presented models operate on different scales of observation; what they share is their usage of the extended finite element method XFEM.

The first model employs XFEM for transverse matrix cracks in laminates. This approach allows for many discrete cracks in the solution without having to mesh the cracks.

Interaction with models for delamination and fiber failure is natural. The second model has been introduced for efficient large scale analysis of delamination. This model uses level sets to describe the location of the crack front and XFEM to create a weak discontinuity in the deformation across the front.

Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures : Christos Kassapoglou :

Thirdly, results are presented from micromechanical simulation of delamination. Peridynamics for failure and residual strength prediction of fiber-reinforced composites. Erdogan Madenci and Kyle Colavito. Peridynamics is a reformulation of classical continuum mechanics that utilizes integral equations in place of partial differential equations to remove the difficulty in handling discontinuities, such as cracks or interfaces, within a body.

Damage is included within the constitutive model; initiation and propagation can occur without resorting to special crack growth criteria necessary in other commonly utilized approaches. New Releases. Description This book comprehensively covers new and existing methods for the design and analysis of composites structures with damage present.

It provides efficient and accurate approaches for analysing structures with holes and impact damage. It introduces a new methodology for fatigue analysis of composites. It provides design guidelines, and step by step descriptions of how to apply the methods, along with evaluation of their accuracy and applicability. It includes problems and exercises. It is accompanied by a website hosting lecture slides and solutions. Other books in this series. Spacecraft Systems Engineering Peter Fortescue.

Add to basket. Civil Avionics Systems Ian Moir. Aircraft Systems Ian Moir. Understanding Aerodynamics Doug McLean. Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics John M. Principles of Flight for Pilots Peter J. Aircraft Design Mohammad H. Advanced Aircraft Design Egbert Torenbeek. Principles of Flight Simulation David Allerton. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design Andras Sobester.

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  • Back cover copy Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures: Simplified Approaches Christos Kassapoglou - Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands With the ever increasing application of composites, the need to understand how composite structures in aerospace, automotive, marine and construction applications behave over prolonged periods of service becomes more pronounced.

    In particular, understanding how damage affects the performance of such structures and how one can design them realizing that damage and defects are inevitable, becomes a priority. Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures: Simplified Approaches goes past traditional knockdown or safety factors used in design, and suggests models that can be used to more accurately quantify the effect of damage on composite structures.

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    At the same time it minimizes the use of detailed computationally intensive numerical methods that cannot easily be used in preliminary design. It presents simplified approaches that provide insight on the effect of various types of damage from holes and cracks to delaminations and impact. These approaches allow relatively rapid analysis and generation of alternative designs for optimization and trade-off studies. This helps down-selection of robust and efficient design candidates for more detailed and more expensive analysis.

    Finally, the methods are combined into a framework for developing promising analytical fatigue models for composite structures. Key features: Presents efficient, accurate, analytical models for predicting the effect of damage on strength of composite structures Provides design guidelines, and step by step descriptions of how to apply the methods, along with evaluation of their accuracy and applicability Includes problems and exercises Accompanied by a website hosting lecture slides and solutions By presenting reliable approaches that assist design and analysis without the need for expensive numerical methods, Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures: Simplified Approaches is an invaluable reference for graduate students and practising engineers in the field.

    Review quote "This will help the readers - engineers who will be designing the next generation of airframe structures - to develop not only better understanding of underlying damage mechanisms, but also critical thinking and open-mindedness needed for evaluation of any new simplified approaches that may emerge in the future" Professor Maria Kashtalyan, University of Aberdeen on behalf of the Aeronautical Journal, Oct show more.

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    • Since he has worked in industry, first at Beech Aircraft on the all-composite Starship I and then at the Structures Research Group at Sikorsky Aircraft specializing on analysis of composite structures for the all-composite Comanche and other helicopters and leading internally funded research and NASA and the US Army funded program.